Early prevention, identification and intervention are the three facets of Sarthak Antakshep Kendra. Early prevention and identification involves identification of problem areas in its earliest and sensitization of gynecologists, pediatrician and health workers to control disability proneness for risk babies.
Early intervention works for providing therapeutic aid to child facing developmental delays. During the first three formative years of an individual’s life most of the cognitive, physical, communication, social/emotional, and adaptive developments take place. Thus, in the case of any developmental delays, this period is the best for introducing interventions so that the child can be facilitated and supported to achieve faster.
We at Sarthak, with the aid of a multi-disciplinary team (including pediatrician, ENT specialist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, speech pathologists, and psychologists) assess the child and based on the assessment intervention services are planned and provided.
Children with neurological problems, birth defects, genetic disorders, like cerebral palsy, Down’s syndrome, Autism, ADHS, Spina Bifida, Hydrocephalus, Epilepsy and Epilepsy syndromes, metabolic disorders et cetera are provided early intervention services.
Furthermore, as the therapies and sessions are needed to be repeated several times a day, parents are also involved in the therapy sessions. The objective is to make them sensitized and aware about the developments of their child. And, once the parents are acquainted with the therapies under the supervision of experts they can also provide with the same therapy to their kids as well.
We have one early intervention center at Paschim Vihar. Through this center 275 special children are rehabilitated till date.
In addition to services at Paschim Vihar center, periodic check up camps, parents workshop, and awareness camps are also organized. Some of such activities include workshops in Amalavaas Girl School, awareness camp at Nangloi village and Kali Basti. Various visits to Ram Manohar Lohia hospital, Deen Dayal Upadhyay hospital, Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Manovikas Charitable Trust, and National Association for Blind were also made for CRE.
1. What is development?
Human development refers to the biological and psychological development of the human being throughout the lifespan. It consists of the development from infancy, childhood, and adolescence to adulthood. The scientific study of psychological human development is sometimes known as Developmental psychology.
It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child. It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding developmental experiences. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development.
There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–13 years); adolescent (ages 13–19).
Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development. Parents play a large role in a child's life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development. Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development.
The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. There are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child development.
Development: It is acquisition of qualitative and quantitative skills in social environment.
1. Gross motor development,
2. Fine motor development,
3. Social/ personal development,
4. Language development.
Many people use the words growth and maturation interchangeably. Someone might say, 'You know, so-and-so used to throw temper fits when she didn't get her way, but she's matured, and now she just goes with the flow. She's really grown up.'
In psychology, though, growth and maturation are a little different. Growth is the physical process of development, particularly the process of becoming physically larger. It is quantifiable, meaning that it can be measured, and it is mostly influenced by genetics. For example, the year that she was 11, Keisha got taller by two inches. This is an example of growth because it involves her getting physically taller and is quantifiable (two inches).
On the other hand, maturation is the physical, intellectual, or emotional process of development. Maturation is often not quantifiable, and it too is mostly influenced by genetics. For example, as Keisha became older, her brain developed in a way that meant she was able to handle more complex tasks than she could before. Notice that, while growth is physical, maturation is physical, intellectual, or emotional. Often, maturation involves two or even all three.
A stone or pillar set up to how the distance (in miles) to or from a specified place. What does that mean, exactly, in relation to child development you may wonder? Developmental Milestones are markers that are set forth by early childhood experts as a tool to measure a child’s growth in four primary areas of development.
These four areas include:
Fine/Gross Motor development.
Within each of these four domains they are broken into age ranges such as 0-5 mos., 5-8 mos., 8-14 mos., and so on. If a child’s meeting the markers in each of these categories then they are considered to be on target as compared to other kids the same age. If a child is not meeting certain markers in any of the four previously mentioned domains, this would be something that parents, early childhood experts, and paediatricians would note. From this information, activities, skills, and ideas could be provided to a child’s family to encourage their child’s opportunities for growth.
At some point, if milestones continue to be missed, it is considered a “red flag”. A red flag is an indicator that early intervention may be needed to help a child increase their development with not only their parents support but through extra support of an OT, PT, SLP, experts specifically set up to help increase a child’s abilities and skills and to support the parent in doing the same.
The importance of Developmental Milestones is two-fold. It validates and reassures parents that they are providing the skills, information and ideas needed to raise a happy, healthy, well adjusted child. It also helps provide a child and their family with some extra support, through early childhood intervention, when needed, so a child can meet their full potential.
2. Explain theories of development.
Theories of development:
1. Ecological systems
Also called "development in context" or "human ecology" theory, ecological systems theory, originally formulated by Urie Bronfenbrenner specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems. The four systems are microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. Each system contains roles, norms and rules that can powerfully shape development. Since its publication in 1979, Bronfenbrenner's major statement of this theory, The Ecology of Human Development. has had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approach the study of human beings and their environments. As a result of this influential conceptualization of development, these environments — from the family to economic and political structures — have come to be viewed as part of the life course from childhood through adulthood.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss scholar who began his studies in intellectual development in the 1920s. Piaget’s first interests were those that dealt with the ways in which animals adapt to their environments and his first scientific article about this subject was published when he was 10 years old. This eventually led him to pursue a Ph.D. in Zoology, which then led him to his second interest in epistemology. Epistemology branches of philosophy and deals with the origin of knowledge. Piaget believed the origin of knowledge came from Psychology, so he travelled to Paris and began working on the first “standardized intelligence test” at Alfred Binet laboratories; this influenced his career greatly. As he carried out this intelligence testing he began developing a profound interest in the way children’s intellectualism works.
As a result, he developed his own laboratory and spent years recording children’s intellectual growth and attempted to find out how children develop through various stages of thinking. This led to Piaget develop four important stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2), preoperational stage (age 2 to 7), concrete-operational stage (ages 7 to 12), and formal-operational stage (ages 11 to 12, and thereafter). Piaget concluded that adaption to an environment (behaviour) is managed through schemes and adaption occurs through assimilation and accommodation.
3. Lev Vygotsky
Vygotsky was a Russian theorist, who proposed the socio cultural theory. During the 1920s–1930s while Piaget was developing his own theory, Vygotsky was an active scholar and at that time his theory was said to be “recent” because it was translated out of Russian language and began influencing Western thinking. He posited that children learn through hands-on experience, as Piaget suggested. However, unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the zone of proximal development) could help children learn new tasks. This technique is called "scaffolding," because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn.
Vygotsky was strongly focused on the role of culture in determining the child's pattern of development. He argued that "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (inter psychological) and then inside the child (intra psychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals."
Vygotsky felt that development was a process and saw periods of crisis in child development during which there was a qualitative transformation in the child's mental functioning.
4. Jhon Bowlby:
Attachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby and developed by Mary Ainsworth, is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for understanding interpersonal relationships between human beings. Bowlby’s observations of close attachments led him to believe that close emotional bonds or “attachments” between an infant and their primary caregiver is an important requirement that is necessary to form “normal social and emotional development”.
5. Erik Erikson:
A follower of Freud's, synthesized both Freud's and his own theories to create what is known as the "psychosocial” stages of human development, which span from birth to death, and focuses on "tasks" at each stage that must be accomplished to successfully navigate life's challenges.
Erikson's eight stages consist of the following:
· Trust vs. mistrust (infant)
· Autonomy vs. shame (toddlerhood)
· Initiative vs. guilt (preschooler)
· Industry vs. inferiority (young adolescent)
· Identity vs. role confusion (adolescent)
· Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
· Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood)
· Ego integrity vs. despair (old age)
6. Jhon B. Watson:
Watson was able to explain the aspects of human psychology through the process of classical conditioning. With this process, Watson believed that all individual differences in behaviour were due to different learning experiences. He wrote extensively on child development and conducted research (see Little Albert experiment). This experiment had shown that phobia could be created by classical conditioning. Watson was instrumental in the modification of William James’ stream of consciousness approach to construct a stream of behaviour theory. Watson also helped bring a natural science perspective to child psychology by introducing objective research methods based on observable and measurable behaviour. Following Watson’s lead, B.F. Skinner further extended this model to cover operant conditioning. Skinner used the operant chamber, or Skinner box, to observe the behaviour of small organisms in a controlled situation and proved that organisms' behaviours are influenced by the environment. Furthermore, he used reinforcement and punishment to shape in desired behaviour.
Child development is not a matter of a single topic, but progresses somewhat differently for different aspects of the individual. Here are descriptions of the development of a number of physical and mental characteristics
The men who were raised to not show emotions are left without the emotional vocabulary that is needed in turn to raise their sons with a developed sense of emotions). Without an emotional vocabulary taught to them, these boys and men are left unsure of what they are feeling, and unable to express themselves. When he is not able to express his emotions, due to limited emotional vocabulary, or fear of being ostracized by his peers, he struggles in many areas of his life, including but not limited to: school; friendships; family life; and intimate relationships in adulthood. Boys will do whatever they need to do in order to save face, and not appear weak to those around him, even if it means stuffing his feelings deep inside. Because of the hiding of their true feelings, boys more often have conduct issues due to anger. (Pollack, William S. Real boys: rescuing our sons from the myths of boyhood. New York, NY, Random House, 1998).
Physical growth in stature and weight occurs over the 15–20 years following birth, as the individual changes from the average weight of 3.5 kg and length of 50 cm at full term birth to full adult size. As stature and weight increase, the individual's proportions also change, from the relatively large head and small torso and limbs of the neonate, to the adult's relatively small head and long torso and limbs. The child’s pattern of growth is in a head-to-toe direction, or cephalocaudal, and in an inward to outward pattern (centre of the body to the peripheral) called proximodistal.
The speed of physical growth is rapid in the months after birth, and then slows, so birth weight is doubled in the first four months, tripled by age 12 months, but not quadrupled until 24 months. Growth then proceeds at a slow rate until shortly before puberty (between about 9 and 15 years of age), when a period of rapid growth occurs. Growth is not uniform in rate and timing across all body parts. At birth, head size is already relatively near to that of an adult, but the lower parts of the body are much smaller than adult size. In the course of development, then, the head grows relatively little, and torso and limbs undergo a great deal of growth.
Genetic factors play a major role in determining the growth rate, and particularly the changes in proportion characteristic of early human development. However, genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate. Poor nutrition and frequent injury and disease can reduce the individual's adult stature, but the best environment cannot cause growth to a greater stature than is determined by heredity.
What is Developmental Assessment?
An assessment is a structured evaluation of your child's development—physical, language, intellectual, social, and emotional—by a developmental assessment specialist, or a team of professionals that can include a paediatrician, language specialist, audiologist, occupational therapist, child psychologist.
Developmental assessment is the process of observing and recording the work children do and how they do it, as a basis for a variety of decisions about their care, suitable programs and program goals, and service needs.
Assessment will be tailored to your child's age and suspected problem or delay. In general, you can expect that you'll spend time answering a host of detailed questions about your child's growth, physical movements, behaviour, play, and interactions with family members and the rest of the world. And your child will undergo a series of tests that may include a physical exam, hearing and eye screenings, play observation, and standardized tests that present your child with certain tasks to determine areas of strength and weakness.
Why Assessment is important?
• An assessment instrument is a decision making tool.
• Monitoring progress – Individualize programs, inform parents – Report to funders, revise programs.
• Screening: ‘red flags’.
• Diagnosis – Identify special need(s) – Establish eligibility for services.
Domains’ of Assessment
• Physical growth & movement
• Identity / Self-concept.
What are the tools a