Sarthak, with the Government support works for enabling an environment for learning by sensitizing the teachers and parents to provide medical and social support to children with disability. The activities are focused on two major aspects of checking the drop-outs and inclusion of students in the school education.
In the course of this activity, 20 Delhi Government schools of West Delhi were targeted. Out of these schools assessment drive was conducted and groups of children with disability were made for 250 disabled children. Thereafter, to bring them at par with their fellow classmate children were provided with support in terms of remedial classes and medical rehabilitation through the right kind of therapy and stimulation.
In addition to these, various workshops for various stakeholders such as teachers, special educators, school principals, school management committees and parents of children with disability are also organized with the intent to build sensitivity for differently able children. Vocational trainings are also under process for these children as well.
Inclusive education means that all students attend and are welcomed by their neighbourhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.
Why it is important to be inclusive in schools?
Inclusive education means different and diverse students learning side by side in the same classroom. They participate in student government together. And they attend the same sports meets and plays. Inclusive education values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom.
What is meant by inclusive term in schooling?
The term inclusion captures, in one word, an all-embracing societal ideology. Regarding individuals with disabilities and special education, inclusion secures opportunities for students with disabilities to learn alongside their non-disabled peers in general education classrooms.
What does it mean to have an inclusive classroom?
An inclusive classroom is a general education classroom in which students with and without disabilities learns together. It is essentially the opposite of a special education classroom, where students with disabilities learn with only other students with disabilities.
What is model of inclusion?
Inclusion in education is an approach to educating students with special educational needs. Inclusion rejects the use of special schools or classrooms to separate students with disabilities from students without disabilities.
What is meant by special education?
A special school is a school catering for students who have special educational needs due to severe learning difficulties, physical disabilities or behavioural problems. Special schools may be specifically designed, staffed and resourced to provide appropriate special education for children with additional needs.
What are benefits of inclusive education?
Benefits of Inclusive Education
All children benefit from inclusive education. It allows them to:
· Develop individual strengths and gifts, with high and appropriate expectations for each child.
· Work on individual goals while participating in the life of the classroom with other students their own age.
· Involve their parents in their education and in the activities of their local schools.
· Foster a school culture of respect and belonging. Inclusive education provides opportunities to learn about and accept individual differences, lessening the impact of harassment and bullying.
· Develop friendships with a wide variety of other children, each with their own individual needs and abilities.
· Positively affect both their school and community to appreciate diversity and inclusion on a broader level.
What is an assessment?
Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve.
The primary purpose of assessment is to improve students' learning and teachers' teaching as both respond to the information it provides. Assessment for learning is an ongoing process that arises out of the interaction between teaching and learning. The term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students.
What are the different tools available for assessment of children with special needs?
Binet-kamat Test(BKT): Includes verbal ability, perceptual skills, short term memory and eye-hand co-ordination. Use for children up to age of 21 years to measure Intelligence quotient.
Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC): Includes verbal and performance scale of school going children age up to 15 years.
Gessell Development test (GDT): The Gesell Developmental Schedules cover four fields : Motor, Adaptive, Language and Personal-Social. The Gesell Developmental schedules yields the Developmental Quotient (DQ) rather than an Intelligence Quotient (IQ).
Seguin Form Board Test: 3-15 Years: The Seguin Form Board Test is based on the single factor theory of intelligence, measures speed and accuracy. It is useful in evaluating a child's eye-hand co-ordination, shape-concept, visual perception and cognitive ability. The test primarily used to assess visuo-motor skills. It includes Gesell figures where in the child is ask to copy ten geometrical figures to evaluate visuo-motor ability.
What is the role of stakeholders in inclusive set up model?
Inclusive Education (IE) is a new approach towards educating the children with disability and learning difficulties with that of normal ones within the same roof. It brings all students together in one classroom and community, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, and seeks to maximize the potential of all students. It is one of the most effective ways in which to promote an inclusive and tolerant society.
Sending them to a school for disabled will not help.” Inclusive schools have to be well-equipped in all aspects to cater and deliver quality education for all children.
This includes having a balanced curriculum that is appropriate for all categories of children, teachers who have the ability to handle the individual needs within the classroom and thereby promote an environment where personal development, social skills and student participation are strongly encouraged.
Another critical aspect of inclusive education for a special needs child is in having the acceptance and friendship of classmates. This kind of support also aids in the progress of special children and helps them gain confidence within the school environment. Further, parents have a vital role as partners to make inclusive education successful within the classroom.
This is possible when the children with special needs continue to live at home and attend school, just like normal children. Parents should also be involved with the teachers and administrative staff at the school to coordinate travel arrangements, school activities and learning materials for their special child.
What are remedial classes?
People with intellectual disability remain capable of learning new skills and improving on existing skills throughout their life. The goal, therefore, is to reduce the impact of the intellectual disability by building on their strengths and helping them learn new skills so that they can to reach their full potential.
When teaching a person with intellectual disability a new skill, it is important to know if the person has developed the prerequisite skills needed. Children and adults with intellectual disability are usually very responsive to praise and encouragement.
It is important to acknowledge the person’s effort on a task and ensure they receive encouragement, praise or rewards for their exploration or achievements. Building on strengths and helping learn new skills will increase success. Being successful in what we do increases our confidence and motivation to undertake new learning opportunities.
· Ensure that the child is ready to learn the task. That is ensuring if prerequisites are present.
• Teacher should reflect certain attitudes: Acceptance of where the child is developmentally. Optimism regarding child’s capacity to develop. Importance of providing experience of success.
• Know child’s strengths & tap on them: Generalize the skills taught in one setting. While rewarding, keep in mind what is rewarding for the child.
What is task analysis while preparing lesson plan for children with special needs?
• Teach one step at a time: Go in structured manner, don’t teach everything together as it may lead to confusion. Teach one step at a time so that everything get clear to child.
• The appropriate rewards to strengthen the behavior: Reward child for his/her attempt so that s/he get confident enough that h/she knows concept and explain it to others. While rewarding one should know about child’s like or dislike.
• Prevent failure: Always help child where ever it’s required. Give him/her appropriate prompts in order to fetch answer from them. Give them enough options to choose from so that they can get answers and does not have failure feeling.
• Use appropriate teaching aids correctly: Teacher should always use appropriate teaching learning material so that child learn concept in easy and play way manner.
• Ensure the most effective seating plan for children: children with special needs sitting arrangement should be made in front of teacher thus teacher can pay most of their attention to them, make them interactive, attentive and participative rather make them sit in last row where child easily get distracted.
• Use ICT in classroom activities: Use of proper audio-visual methods through use of information and technology will increase child interest and attention. Audio and visual will fetch their attention; promote better understanding of concept rather keeping things verbal which at time get boring and monotonous.
What are Principals to be followed while teaching children with special needs?
Move from simple to complex: Always teach simple concept what is known and easy for child before moving on to complex steps.
Teach from concrete to abstract: Concrete concepts refer to perceivable and spatially embedded entities, while abstract concepts refer to entities that “are neither purely physical nor spatially constrained”. Teaching child first what is perceived, countable and touchable for child so that s/he can understand concept thoroughly and remember it for long term than moving on concepts which s/he can relate and think off.
Teach from known to unknown: Always teach what is known to child before moving on to new concept. That assures success, confidence and moving ahead for further challenge in child. Whenever you teach something new always ask before things child have done so that it work as revision and concept get strengthen.
Teach from whole to parts: Introduce whole concept to child so that s/he can have proper concept building of particular things before introducing parts of the same concept.
Follow the principles of rewarding the child: Don’t forget to acknowledge child efforts it imbibe self confidence and prepare him/her for future challenges. Whenever child explains or attempt with proper format s/he should be praised for what they have done. Praise can be in many forms social, verbal and monetary etc.
Frequently verbalize what you are doing: Keep on verbalizing things whatever you are teaching to child so that it get establish in his/her mind. Frequent verbalization stimulates brain thus child is able to remember concept for long period.
Have patience while teaching: All you require is patience and calmness while imparting education to children with special need. Many things they learn at fast and many times they slow down to catch the concept don’t get hyper, angry, shout or scream. It brings fear and negative feelings in child thus make him or her nervous for next attempt. We all make mistakes while learning same applies to them also, so it’s ok have patience while teaching new concept.
Teach in a way that children enjoy (music, games, crafts etc): Teacher should know child learning style. Whatever the child learning style is teach through that method because child will enjoy learning through that method.
Use peer tutoring, cooperative learning: Imparting learning in groups or through friends will inculcate social skills and child will enjoy learning with peers.
Management of Behavioral problems: Teacher should know about managing child behavioral issues because such issues hamper child’s learning. Child won’t be able to pay attention and get distracted easily and disturbs other classmates. So teacher should know about classroom management of such children so that child should be engaged in classroom activities.
Involve parents, siblings and other family and community members in the programme: Whatever you teach child family should get involved and know currently what is going on with child so that same they can also practice at home. Constant revision will strengthen the concept.
Build strength beyond Disability:
Make the best use of child’s learning style.
Work harder in skills that don’t come easily to the child.
Be flexible and adaptable; try new things and new ways of teaching.
Implement ADL .